OHE Publications

McKenna, Ian. 

Seminar Briefing
October 2020

Determining and defining value in health care is a persistent challenge in every country. To some extent, what constitutes value depends on perspective, e.g. a pharmaceutical company may view value somewhat differently than a doctor or a hospital administrator.

Errea, M., Skedgel, C., Zamora, B., G, Hampson., R, Althin., Hofmarcher, T., Lindgren, P., & Cookson, G. 

Consulting Report
October 2020

Substantial economic resources are devoted to healthcare across Europe, but there is evidence that a large proportion of these resources are of limited benefit to patients and society. Around 10% of European Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is spent on healthcare and estimates suggest that as much as one-fifth of this amount (2% of GDP) is spent on interventions that make no meaningful contribution to health outcomes. In economic terms, these resources are used inefficiently.

Pearson, S., Lowe, M., Towse, A., K., Segel, C. and Henshall, C.

Research Paper
September 2020

In the focus on US drug prices, ICER has contributed thinking on determining when price aligns with patient benefits. Less debated is whether insurance coverage provides patients with fair access to a drug with a fair, value-based, price. But how do we define fair access? This paper from ICER and OHE authors develops a fair access framework, proposing Ethical Goals for Access and Fair Design Criteria for cost sharing and prior authorization protocols.

Bell, E., Neri, M., Steuten, L.

Research Paper
September 2020

OHE is undertaking a research programme called the Broad Assessment of Value in Vaccines Engagement (BRAVE). The overarching aim of the BRAVE initiative is to increase recognition of the broader value elements of vaccines and consistency of their assessment within HTA and wider decision-making processes in various countries, including Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Sweden, the UK and the US.  

Rodes Sanchez, M., Henderson, N. and Steuten, L. 

Consulting Report
August 2020

Histology independent therapies, a new class of medicines that target cancer based on specific genomic or molecular alterations of cancer cells rather than tissue of origin, face significant methodological and policy hurdles related to evidence development and acceptance, value assessment and reimbursement pathways, and diagnostic infrastructure availability.

Barros, P.

Seminar Briefing
August 2020

The issue of rising prescription drug prices is a concern in every country. Dozens of policy initiatives and hundreds of research projects over last the fifty years have attempted to find solutions to pricing that provide an appropriate balance between the cost to health care systems and incentives for R&D. To name but a few, these include reference pricing, managed entry agreements, price-volume agreements, rebates, and risk sharing. The ultimate solution, however, remains elusive.

 

Brassel, S., Neri, M., O’Neill, P. and Steuten, L. 

Consulting Report
August 2020

Many health technology assessment (HTA) agencies limit their assessment of vaccines to individual health benefits and the costs associated with vaccine administration and the disease avoided. However, compared to other health technologies, the standard evaluation approaches have often been criticised as inadequate to accurately estimate the value of vaccines.

Towse, A. and Firth, I.

Monograph
July 2020

This year’s OHE lecture addresses the question: how should the world pay for a COVID-19 vaccine? Adrian Towse, Emeritus Director of OHE and Senior Research Fellow presents the challenges that we face in developing a COVID-19 vaccine,and suggests a mechanism for buying the vaccine on a global scale. This paper was published alongside the lecture but contains additional analysis, extensive footnotes and references. Comments and feedback are welcome.

Berdud. M., Ferraro. J., Towse. A.

Consulting Report
July 2020

This paper presents a supply and demand model of pharmaceutical markets to analyse the relationship between the value of the Cost-Effectiveness Threshold (CET) and the distribution of the health and economic value of new medicines between consumers (payers) and developers (life science industry). As a novelty, the model incorporates a bargaining process and bargaining power distributed between the payer and the developers, which has an impact on the distribution of the health and economic value of new medicines between the two parties.

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