Hernandez-Villafuerte, K., Zamora, B. and Towse, A.
This OHE Research paper by Karla Hernandez-Villafuerte, (German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ), Bernarda Zamora (OHE) and Adrian Towse (OHE) sets out a research agenda proposing new approaches in three areas to improve understanding of supply side opportunity costs for the English NHS. A subsequent paper will set out the authors research findings.
Berdud, M., Garau, M., Neri, M., O'Neill, P., Sampson, C., and Towse, A.
Using a multidisciplinary methodological approach combining a theoretical economic framework with uptake/market share analyses by country and interviews, this OHE research concludes that: (i) IP incentives for R&D may have encouraged a high degree of in-class competition of DAAs close to the first entrant launch; (ii) in-class competition had a positive impact on uptake and adoption of DAAs in the top-5 European countries and; (iii) although in-class competition is a necessary condition for early adoption and fast uptake of innovative medicines, it is not sufficient as there are other factors related to the performance of the new technology, characteristics of the healthcare system and political factors which can have an effect.
The high cost of drugs for rare diseases (‘orphan drugs’) has generated considerable debate. While there is debate in the economic literature over whether a premium should be paid for ‘rarity’, these drugs are reimbursed with high prices in many countries. The question then arises as to what should be a reasonable price for an orphan drug?
Cole, A., Towse, A., Lorgelly, P., and Sullivan, R.
The current system of a single price per medicine means that, for multi-indication medicines, the relationship between price and “value” can vary substantially. In this OHE Research paper, we consider: What are the economic implications of an alternative to single-price payments for pharmaceuticals? In particular, what are the implications for: payer budgets, patient access, and the incentives for innovation?
Pearson, S., Dreitlein, B., Towse, A., Hampson, G. and Henshall, C.
OHE Research Paper 18/02: Real World Evidence (RWE) – This paper provides a framework and specific steps to help both manufacturers and payers meet the challenge of developing observational RWE through a transparent process that can be considered credible by all stakeholders.
Hampson, G., Towse, A., Dreitlein, B., Henshall, C. and Pearson, S.
OHE Research Paper 18/01: This paper sets out the potential opportunities and important challenges and limitations that must be addressed in considering options for using RWE to inform insurer coverage decisions. The primary purpose of developing the paper was to stimulate discussion at the 2017 ICER Policy Summit meeting. A separate paper is available that summarises the authors reflections and proposed ways forwards based on the discussions that were had at the meeting.
Zamora, B., Parkin, D., Feng, Y., Bateman, A., Herdman, M., and Devlin, N.
This paper reports new methods for analysing the distribution of EQ-5D observations. The Health State Density Index and Health State Density Curve are used to summarise the extent to which people’s self-reported health on the EQ-5D is concentrated on a few health states, or distributed more evenly over a wide range of health states. This information can be useful in understanding patients’ treatment needs, as well as providing a way of comparing the nature of data provided by different patients or collected using different patient-reported outcome measures.
Devlin, N., Shah, K., Mulhern, B., Pantiri, K. and van Hout, B.
Standard methods for eliciting the preference data upon which value sets are based (e.g. time trade-off, standard gamble) generally have in common an aim to ‘uncover’ the preferences of survey respondents by asking them to evaluate a sub-set of health states. The responses are then used to infer their preferences over all possible dimensions and levels. An alternative approach is to ask respondents directly about the relative importance to them of the dimensions, levels and interactions between them
Questions of happiness and well-being have increasingly been drawing the attention of health economists, with the understanding that its measures approximate quality of life, or at any rate is one of its major components. Happiness in surveys is typically reported as a rating scale.
Hampson, G., Lichten, C., Berdud, M., Pollitt, A., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Sussex, J., and Towse, A.
The Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) was established in April 2007. OHE and RAND Europe were commissioned by the Oxford BRC to undertake a programme of top-down evaluations of aspects of the impact of the BRC since its inception.