Economics of Industry

Mason, A.R., Towse, A. and Drummond, M.F.

March 1999

Disease management is a term with multiple and ambiguous meanings. For some, it is purely a form of managing care. For others, it is ‘strategic planning’ by the pharmaceutical industry to market its products in a different way. In between these two ends of the semantic spectrum are a wide variety of interpretations and usage. Forms of health care management exist that embody all the principles of disease management, but which are given a different label. In this report, we explore different notions of disease management and consider their relevance to the NHS.

Kettler, H.

February 1999

The objective of this paper is to analyse the existing estimates of NCE costs and look at the subsequent changes in cost components and at the impact of structural change in the R&D process. These discussions cannot substitute for new estimates that are based on more recent company data but, in the absence of such new estimates, they do provide some indication of the direction and magnitude of likely cost changes that have occurred in the 1980s and 1990s.

Kettler, H.

November 1998

Pharmaceutical companies report that in their dynamic, research and technology intensive industry, competitiveness is synonymous with innovativeness. That is, companies must invest in product research and development (R&D) to stay ahead. To afford this type of strategy, companies seek adequate reimbursement for their time, risk, and investments.

Simpson, H.

October 1998

This paper examines the economic aspects of the forces driving the emergence of biotechnology firms, and the implications of this for the organisation of research and development (R&D) and industrial structure in the pharmaceutical industry.

Cave, M. and Towse, A.

October 1997

The aim of this paper is to review alternative methods of regulating the price of pharmaceuticals bought by the NHS from the perspective of the experience of the economic regulation of other industries in the UK, notably the privatised utilities. The NHS procures medicines in a variety of ways, subject to different methods of price control, but the main control is on profits via the PPRS.

Danzon, P.

May 1997

The purpose of this paper is to examine the welfare arguments for international price differences for pharmaceuticals and the welfare effects of policies that have the effect of eliminating such differences, in particular, parallel trade and regulation based on foreign prices.

Hale, D. and Towse, A.

June 1995

Although there is widespread agreement about the important role the pharmaceutical industry plays in the U K economy, there is no easily available source presenting the chief figures in a clear and easily interpretable way. The purpose of this paper is to do precisely that. It is based on serious research and analysis by economists, and provides a perspective within which the industry may be understood, and criticised, and assessed.

Towse, A. ed.

January 1995

This book contains the proceedings o f a conference held by the Office of Health Economics in June 1994. The papers, by a number of distinguished contributors, explore the role industrial policy can play in providing an economic environment in which the pharmaceutical industry meets the needs of patients and health care purchasers, so providing an economic asset to those countries hosting its R&D and manufacturing activity.

Teeling Smith, G. and Roberts, C. ed.

January 1993

The chapters in this book are based on contributions to a seminar organised jointly by the Office of Health Economics and the International Science Policy Foundation, and held at the Royal Society of Medicine in London on 10 December 1992. An account of the discussion which followed each paper is also included. Background notes were circulated to the participants in advance of the meeting and this introduction is largely based on those notes.

Teeling Smith, G. ed.

January 1992

It is almost twenty years since I realised the significance of Schumpeter's work to the pharmaceutical industry. But since the references to his conclusions in 'The Canberra hypothesis' in 1975, comparatively little attention has been drawn to the relevance of Schumpeter's theory of 'creative destruction' and the need for shelters against the 'perennial gale' of innovative competition in relation to pharmaceuticals.


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