Economics of Industry

Towse, A., Garrison, L. and Puig-Peiro, R.

Occasional Paper
February 2012

Interest is growing in schemes that involve “paying for pills by results”, that is, “paying for performance” rather than merely “paying for pills”.  Despite its intuitive appeal, this approach is highly controversial and is disliked by many health care providers, policy makers, and pharmaceutical companies.

Sharma, P.

Seminar Briefing
November 2011

Antibacterial drug resistance is a serious and growing worldwide problem that threatens our ability to cure traditionally treatable diseases and to successfully perform numerous surgical procedures that rely on antibacterials. The current situation is due primarily to two causes: inappropriate use in humans and animals and the decline in the development of new antibacterials, largely because of lower returns on investment in R&D.

Sussex, J., Towse, A. and Devlin, N.

Research Paper
August 2011

Recent reforms to the National Health Service (NHS) in England include important changes in the regulation of prices for new medicines. From January 2014, the existing Pharmaceutical Pricing Regulation Scheme (PPRS) will be replaced by “value based pricing” (VBP) for branded medicines sold to the NHS. This will apply only to new medicines; those marketed before 2014 will continue to be governed by the PPRS.

Shah, K., Sussex, J., Hernandez-Villafuerte, K. and Garau, M., Rotolo, D., Hopkins, M.M., Grassano, N., Crane, P., Lang, F., Hutton, J., Pateman, C., Mawer, A., Farrell, C. and Sharp, T.

Research Paper
July 2014

As earlier OHE research has demonstrated, sources of funding for medical research—public, charity and private sector—are complementary, not duplicative. The three sectors also differ in their approaches. As a result, decreased funding from one would not only reduce the overall financing available, but also change the nature of the research effort overall. This is a concern given that austerity in government spending in the UK is likely to continue for some time. This report produced by OHE and SPRU at the University of Sussex for Cancer Research UK explores two sets of questions: 1.

Sharma, P. and Towse, A.

Monograph
April 2011

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs is a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases.  A growing global public health threat, AMR reduces the chances of successfully treating patients with infectious diseases, thereby increasing the probability of complications, morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that infectious diseases are the third leading cause of death in the European Union.

Garau, M., Mordoh, A. and Sussex, J.

Consulting Report
April 2011

Continuing concern about the fiscal deficit makes it likely that government funding of health and medical research will remain under scrutiny. This OHE Consulting study, commissioned by Cancer Research UK, explores the interdependence between publicly funded and charity funded medical research.  In particular, it focuses on whether and how changes in the levels of government funding can affect private funding for charities, medical research and the UK economy as a whole.

Towse, A. and Sharma, P.

Research Paper
April 2011

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is becoming a major global public health threat and has begun to command attention from European and US policy makers. An initial focus on monitoring AMR and conserving existing treatments by cutting down on misuse has been complemented by moves towards addressing the paucity of new drugs in the R&D pipeline of the pharmaceutical industry.

Garau, M., Towse, A. and Danzon, P.

Occasional Paper
February 2011

This paper examines the potentially positive impact of differential pricing in Europe and the overall negative effects of international reference pricing (IRP) measures. The authors point out that IRP actually encourages higher prices in lower-income countries, can delay marketing/patient access in lower-price countries, and ultimately translates into less investment in R&D. Differential pricing assumes that countries with lower incomes should pay lower prices, encourages the earliest possible marketing in all countries, and provides incentives for innovation.

Grabowski, H.G.

Seminar Briefing
January 2011

Priority Review Vouchers (PRVs) are awarded in the US to companies that gain approval there for a new drug for one of sixteen tropical diseases, under a law passed in 2007. The PRV entitles the holder to priority review by the FDA of another drug of the bearer’s choice.  The Vouchers are transferable, i.e., not limited to use by the company that gained approval of the neglected-disease drug.  

Mattison, N., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J. and Towse, A. eds.

Monograph
December 2010

This publication reports on a seminar intended to encourage further thought about the distinguishing characteristics of the market for biosimilars and the implications of these for potential savings.

Economists and regulatory experts from the US and Europe were invited to describe their research and offer their perspectives about what can be expected in the near- and medium-term.  The publication includes updated insights that take account of changes since the seminar, including more recent analyses of potential market impact.

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