‘Cascades of care’ have emerged as an attractive tool for assessing access to care for numerous chronic diseases. Dr Haacker will examine the use of cascades of care across diseases and populations, evaluate the use of cross-sectional targets in disease control strategies (e.g., the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets), and address implications for cost-effectiveness analysis.

Value-based pricing (VBP) is an efficient method for pricing new drugs. Rate of return pricing could, however, be useful in two cases: treatments for ultra-rare diseases, and ‘cures’ for conditions currently being treated at great expense. Rate of return pricing gives rise to challenges. Two are (i) finding proxy estimates of development costs including failures, and (ii) driving future research towards discovering high-value treatments.

Estimating a cost-effectiveness threshold reflecting the opportunity cost of adopting a new technology in a health system is not easy. A new OHE report provides empirical evidence on the relationship between health outcomes and health expenditures in England. Results suggest that setting a cost-effectiveness criterion for NICE may not be capable of being synthesised using scientific methods alone, but involve political judgements.