Estimating a cost-effectiveness threshold reflecting the opportunity cost of adopting a new technology in a health system is not easy. A new OHE report provides empirical evidence on the relationship between health outcomes and health expenditures in England. Results suggest that setting a cost-effectiveness criterion for NICE may not be capable of being synthesised using scientific methods alone, but involve political judgements.
When should progression-free survival be used as a surrogate for overall survival in oncology? Uneven reporting of results – different definitions and methods of analysis, lack of rigour in applying methodology – make progress difficult.