Drug Development/R&D

Professor Margaret Kyle will deliver the Annual Lecture of 2021 on October 14th, 2021, virtually.

The Value in Health May issue includes the paper “How Should the World Pay for a Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Vaccine?”. Finalised in December 2020, it includes: an overview of COVID-19 vaccine development; a proposal for a benefit-based advance market commitment (BBAMC) to get the vaccines needed; and proposals for future pandemic preparedness. In this blog, the authors update their thinking to take account of the events of the last 6 months.

In a commentary piece recently published in Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, OHE authors discuss how the misalignment in interpretations of the term ‘unmet medical need’ by different stakeholders has led to insufficient incentives for development in areas with urgent, genuine need, and propose a new framework for developing a more consistent understanding of UMN that will increase innovation.

This blog discusses the rationale behind a COVID-19 patent waiver decision and contributes to the current debate by producing a balanced view on the benefits and drawbacks resulting from an intellectual property (IP) waiver, in the short- and the long run. Moreover, it offers recommendations and alternatives for expediting global access to COVID-19 vaccines without waiving their IP rights.

A new paper, published last week in Applied Economics, by Dimitrios Kourouklis, Senior Economist at OHE, looks at the question of whether government funding increases public sector development of new medicines. Looking at public sector drug development in Europe, this paper suggests that government funding does have an impact on the research and development pipeline, particularly at the earlier stages of research for medicines targeting rare diseases.

OHE authors develop a supply and demand model of pharmaceutical markets to analyse the social welfare distribution between consumers (payers) and developers (industry) to set an optimal cost-effectiveness threshold (CET).

In place of OHE’s 2020 Annual Lecture, Adrian Towse will give a webinar-lecture on June 25th on payment models for a COVID-19 vaccine.

He will be discussing options for funding the development and manufacture of a vaccine, reflecting on their strengths and weaknesses, considering what may happen with no regional or global collaboration. Analysis will consider the work of Gavi and others to construct a global vaccine market that delivers for all citizens.

A COVID-19 vaccine is needed now, but timelines (12-18 months) create large market risk. By the time a vaccine is ready, the crisis may have passed. A CGD Note explores three options: business as usual – which may lead to promotion of an inferior vaccine or fierce country competition for supply – and two models (cost- or value-based), with countries pre-committing to purchases meeting specified efficacy. The authors prefer a value-based model.

This presentation to the Australian Society for Antimicrobials (ASA) meeting in Melbourne, on 27th February 2020 draws on OHE research, funded by the Wellcome Trust, on adapting HTA methods and contracting for new antibiotics. It analyses UK (NICE and NHSE) plans to introduce a subscription model (delinking use of new antibiotics from payments for making the products available) and suggests that Australia could also pilot such an approach.

OHE has published a white paper discussing the relative merits and shortfalls of current approaches to defining, estimating, and applying cost-effectiveness thresholds in HTA.

This will be accompanied by a (forthcoming) research paper exploring bargaining in threshold setting

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