This seminar focuses on the NHS staffing markets and the use of temporary staff, specifically in the NHS provider sector, i.e. foundation trusts and NHS trust. (which include hospitals). To provide background and context, the discussion begins with an overview of the NHS labour market and the role of staffing agencies in providing temporary staff. The core of the seminar is an examination of previous strong growth in expenditure on such staffing, particularly during the early part of this decade; the effects to date of government intervention to address that spending; and possible lessons for other sectors from the limited evidence now available.