Economics of Health Care Systems

Jones, A. and Duncan, A.

Monograph
January 1995

The subject of earmarked or hypothecated taxes dropped out of the mainstream of public finance theory a great many years ago. It is doubtful whether many of today' s economists learnt anything about it in either their undergraduate or graduate days. The reason was that economists concentrated on such principles of taxation as who benefits or who can afford to pay for a given level of public expenditure. The latter question was determined either within the theory of public goods and externalities or as part of an analysis of improvements in the distribution of income.

Griffin, J. ed.

Monograph
January 1995

This book contains the proceedings of a conference held by the Office of Health on 30 November 1994 entitled 'Health Information and the Consumer' and chaired by Lord Peston. The idea for the conference developed out of the results of a survey conducted on behalf of the OHE by Milpro to ascertain where people obtained their health information and what impact it had on their lifestyles and attitudes to health matters.

Towse, A. ed.

Monograph
January 1995

There is little doubt that throughout the world there is a growing concern about health services and the provision of health care. It is of interest that the worry seems to be independent of the precise structure of health services, the form of provision, and how it is paid for. This suggests two things. One is that the causes of the problem (or problems) are fundamental, and are not entirely, or mainly attributable, to the precise position in any individual country. The second is that each country may have something to learn from the others.

Hall, M.

Briefing
November 1994

Recent decades have seen a significant improvement in the health status of citizens in Western Europe and the USA. This is evident from death rate statistics which fell in the USA from 10.6 to 5.4/1000 between 1940 and 1990, from improvements in life expectancy, and from the near elimination of the acute conditions which were the major public health concern early this century. This progress has arisen from a combination of public health measures, improved health education, preventative medicine, screening programmes and advances in treatment.

Griffin, J.

Briefing
May 1994

In the last decade society has become more health conscious than ever before. A major factor in this change of attitude is the widespread availability of information about healthy lifestyles from both the media and health professionals. People have a greater awareness of the dangers of smoking, of a high fat diet and of taking little or no exercise. They might be expected to be more willing to make changes in their own lifestyle, to participate in health screening and to self-medicate for minor ailments.

Laing, W.

Monograph
March 1994

The recent pace of administrative change in the NHS has been rapid, culminating in the October 1993 decision to abolish the Regional tier of management and merge DHAs and FHSAs. This paper by William Laing is a timely and successful attempt to put these changes in context. It sets out the history of administrative change in the NHS since its inception in 1948, and the concerns that successive reform measures have been designed to address. As the paper shows, the internal market reforms cannot be seen simply as an aberration in the administrative development of the NHS.

Black, D.

Monograph
March 1994

Inequality in health is back on the political agenda in the UK. Three factors have made inequality an issue - firstly, concern that the internal market will enable some, notably patients of GP Fundholders, to get better treatment than other NHS patients, secondly, a revival of interest in community values, bringing with it a recognition of the impact of poverty on life expectancy, and thirdly, greater awareness that health care is being rationed, and will increasingly be so, irrespective of which political party is in Government.

Griffin, J.

Briefing
July 1993

That there is a positive association between unemployment and a variety of measures of ill health is clear. What is less clear is how this association arises. Two questions summarise much of the debate which has concerned researchers for many years. Firstly, does unemployment cause a deterioration in health or, conversely, are the sick more likely to become unemployed? If the latter, then the association is merely a statistical artefact. As unemployment starts to rise, employers lay of the relatively sick first, rather than the fit.

January 1992

AIDS poses a formidable challenge to African policy makers and health professionals. Of the estimated 9 to 11 million cases of HIV infection worldwide, some 7 million are in sub-Saharan Africa. In this largely impoverished region the AIDS pandemic has destabilised already precarious institutions and jeopardised the accomplishment of other pressing health objectives.

Blaxter, M.

Monograph
September 1991

The condition which was later to be called AIDS emerged in the early 1980s in several widely separated locations, including the United States, Haiti, Belgium, France, Zaire and Zambia. The first medical reports, relating to a cluster of cases among homosexual men in the United States, appeared in 1981. Less than 10 years later, the cumulative total of cases reported to the World Health Organisation had reached 334,216 by March 1991. Very few countries of the world have not been touched by the epidemic.

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