OHE Publications

Series on Health
April 1977

In 1808 Charles Badham adopted the term 'bronchitis' to define collectively 'chronic pectoral (chest) complaints, especially those of people advanced in life . . . ' This definition is of relevance today in that it serves to illustrate the wide range of morbid states that bronchitis may encompass and hence the likelihood that most people will experience, at one time or another, some of the symptoms of a bronchitic ailment. Such illnesses may occur either in the form of acute, usually periodic attacks or as chronic afflictions which often become progressively more serious over time.

Taylor, D.

Series on Health
March 1977

This study of the reorganised National Health Service is divided into two papers. The first describes the new structure and the management concepts on which it was based and the second examines the progress of and the criticisms made about the NHS since 1974. They were designed to complement one another although readers already familiar with the health service's administrative format may prefer to confine their attention to the latter study.

January 1977

Viral hepatitis consists of at least two distinct disease entities. Although they are both virus infections of the liver which may lead to clinical 'yellow jaundice', they are caused by different viruses and have contrasting aetiologies and epidemiologies.

Series on Health
October 1976

Asthma, a term derived from the Greek meaning to pant, was first clearly described by Aretaeus, a physician who practised in the second and third centuries of the Christian era. Many descriptions of the disorder appeared subsequently but they were often brief and inadequate and their value was limited still further by confused theories of causation and complicated methods of treatment (Major 1953).

September 1976

To present a balanced view of the brand name/generic controversy and the associated field of bioavailability. Many have discussed these problems; scientists, politicians, industrialists, legislators, hospital pharmacists, physicians, and clinical pharmacologists.

Series on Health
April 1976

Rabies, which is traditionally regarded as a mortal condition in humans once the symptoms have developed, is the best known and most feared of all the diseases which may be passed from animals to man. The course of the illness is usually extremely distressing, both physically and psychologically, although modem medicines can now help to relieve the suffering of its victims. Nevertheless there is still no effective cure. Awareness of this underlines the importance of preventive measures like immunisation and the control of rabies transmission amongst both wild and domestic animals.

Series on Health
February 1976

Anaesthesia is the art or science of rendering the patient unaware, thereby providing an indispensable foundation for surgery. Although man had unsuccessfully been attempting to eliminate the pain of surgical procedures for many centuries, anaesthesia was not introduced into medical practice until the first half of the nineteenth century.

January 1976

During the last fifteen years the rate of homicides (which comprise all cases of murder, manslaughter and infanticide) occurring in England and Wales has doubled. Analysis of the ages of victims shows that the homicide rate is rising most rapidly amongst males in or around their twenties, over 15 per million of whom are now killed as a result of the deliberate acts of other persons each year.

December 1975

In 1901 approximately 127,000 infants and 81,000 children aged 1-14 died in England and Wales. By 1973, the corresponding figures were 11,500 and 4,500, representing falls of 91 per cent and 94 per cent respectively. During this period the total number of persons aged 0-14 rose, albeit unsteadily, from 10.5 million (32 per cent of the total population) to 11.6 million (23 per cent).

Series on Health
October 1975

Mankind has used mind affecting drugs throughout and probably for many thousands of years before recorded history. In European culture alcohol, tobacco, caffeine and to a lesser extent opium have played particularly important roles as psychoactive agents; but in other parts of the world a wide variety of alternative intoxicants, stimulants and hallucinogens have been employed. These include cocaine, mescaline and cannabis.