• provide an historical background to modern pharmaceutical regulation; • summarise available data on the harm caused by medicines; • comment on treatment and prevention strategies; • provide an economic framework for assessing optimal levels of pharmaceutical safety.
The purpose of this book is to bring together a collection of papers by acknowledged experts in the field of trial-based health economic evaluation to provide an overview of the literature. The aim is to give the reader a clear guide to recent developments in statistical methods applied to health economic evaluation, together with the intuition behind the use of those methods, but without detailed technical exposition. The hope is that in doing so, interested readers will be guided to the most appropriate methodological contributions of recent years.
This monograph sets out the insights from applying an economic perspective to a fundamental problem for any health service: ensuring cost-effective care when outcomes from care are uncertain and there is imperfect information about the activities of providers and the factors outside their control which also affect outcomes. The focus is on primary care but the lessons carry over to other sectors.
One of the main characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry, including biotechnology, is the important role played by public institutions. Their role is not only focused on encouraging research and development (R&D), but also on regulation of the final product market. The special characteristics of the pharmaceutical industry and its economic importance for many nations imply that governments have a strong interest in supporting the efficient functioning of the industry.
Improving the health and life expectancy of the populations of the less developed countries of the world requires both better access to medicines and research and development (R&D) of new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics. Achieving the latter is a critical part of a package of steps needed to treat and ultimately eradicate the infectious diseases prevalent predominately in the poorest regions of the developing world.
Mason, A.R., Towse, A., Drummond, M.F. and Cooke, J.
The aim of the project was to evaluate the likely success of medicines management in a primary care led UK National Health Service (NHS). The methods used to achieve this objective included a postal survey and a review of the implementation literature.
Medicines management is a broad process concerned with optimising patient outcomes, while achieving value for money. The improvement of the quality of prescribing is a central feature of medicines management.
The papers in this book are based on the proceedings of a workshop jointly organised by the OHE and the King’s Fund and hosted by the King’s Fund on 1 March 2002.
The authors of the papers that make up this book were asked to address a specific question: ‘Ought NICE to have a threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)?’ -with an implicit second question ‘Should the threshold be explicit?’
Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were introduced in 1993 amid the pages and policy directives of the World Development Report ‘Investing in Health’ (World Bank, 1993). DALYs are a measure of life years lost from disease, adjusted for assumptions about disability as well as the impact of age and future time. They were launched to widen the measurement of disease from the presence of morbidity and mortality, usually cited by the World Bank, to include the impact on disability in a commensurable way with mortality. The World Development Report was ground breaking for two reasons:
This study provides a life cycle perspective on cross-national differences in pharmaceutical prices, volumes and expenditures. Most previous studies have focused solely on cross-national differences in drug prices, comparing prices for a small sample of branded products at a single point in time. However, policymakers are increasingly concerned with total drug expenditures, which reflect volume and average prices for all products.