For the purposes of defining the economic and policy issues facing the vaccine industry, the comments made here are based largely on the experience in the US, but with some discussion of the global vaccines environment.
Almost every paper in the literature on vaccines starts off with the observation that vaccines are among the most cost-effective of medical interventions, and yet the unfortunate situation (although perhaps not surprising to an economist) is that supply is precarious.
Whilst companies routinely conduct post-marketing surveillance studies to collect data on adverse events, the focus of this report is on ‘post-launch’ studies conducted to collect information about health outcomes, including pharmacoeconomics data. By ‘post-launch’, we mean that they are undertaken after a drug has entered the market.
Annual lecture by Christopher Murray, who speaks in the UK about the work on health systems performance assessment (HSPA) at the World Health Organization. He gives some reflections on this work and traces some implications for the UK. These reflections are based on five years of work involving a large number of researchers and policy analysts at WHO and in academic institutions around the world.
I suspect most of us who have had anything to do with the issues surrounding young people’s mental health believe that resolving issues in early life is important to mental health and social functioning in later life. We might articulate this in different ways, and clearly any naive model will have counter evidence and counter examples. However, it seems clear that early vulnerability is predictive not just of mental health problems in later life but also of poor socialisation, criminality, lack of participation, relationship difficulties and so on.
The material in this book is drawn from presentations and discussions at the conference "New Financial Flows for NHS Hospitals – Introducing Payment by Results in England: Some Lessons from Overseas" held at The Commonwealth Club, London, on 31st March 2004.
The conference was jointly organised by the Office of Health Economics and the University of York Centre for Health Economics.
The National Institute for Clinical Excellence is the closest anyone has yet come to fulfilling the economist's dream of how priority-setting in health care should be conducted. It is transparent, evidence-based, seeks to balance efficiency with equity, and uses a cost-per-QALY benchmark as the focus for its decision-making. What more could anyone ask for? Well, experience has taught me that it is not uncommon for an-economist's-dream-come-true to be seen as a nightmare by everyone else.
Prior to the 2002 Spending Review Derek Wanless was asked by the Chancellor of The Exchequer to assess the ‘financial and other resources required to ensure that the NHS can provide a publicly funded, comprehensive, high quality service on the basis of clinical need and not ability to pay.’ The resultant report on the future course of NHS spending was immensely important.
Looked at overall, dental care represents a fascinating mix of the public and private spheres. It has a strong component that many people argue can be left to individual responsibility, private funding and market processes. But it also has a strong public dimension. How these areas are delineated, and how they are both catered for within the overall dental sector, poses some complex challenges. Analysing the nature of these challenges and pointing to ways in which they can be met is the purpose of this report.
The past few decades have seen an accelerating increase in the numbers and proportion of older people in the populations of many countries.
Population ageing will have a profound impact on the societies, politics, and economies of countries. In particular, ageing is associated with alterations in private and public expenditure patterns, due to differing needs and preferences of older versus younger consumers.