Professor Ben Martin (Science and Technology Policy Studies at SPRU, University of Sussex) defines science policy research as ‘economic, policy, management and organisational studies of science, technology and innovation (STI) with a view to providing useful inputs to decision-makers concerned with policies for and the management of STI’. The field is important because STI is important: it is a source of progress, a major contributor to the wealth of nations, provides the basis for new goods and services and for new capabilities, and contributes to changes in the quality of life and t
Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Garau, M., O'Neill, P. and Sussex, J.
This report examines the effect of the European Union’s 1999 Regulation on Orphan Medicinal Products (OMPs) on the European economy and society. This study collected data on several indicators of activity, completed a confidential survey of companies developing OMP, concluded four case studies and undertook a literature review. The result is a rich tableau of data and information that describe the effects of the OMP Regulation in some detail. Findings include the following.
This research reviews how vaccines other than for travel or influenza are evaluated, procured and delivered in Australia. It includes observations as to whether and how the economic assessment process differs for vaccines compared to curative pharmaceutical products and implications of central purchasing for economic efficiency.
This research reviews how vaccines other than for travel or influenza are evaluated, procured and delivered in the UK. It includes observations as to whether and how the economic assessment process differs for vaccines compared to curative pharmaceutical products and the implications of the current pricing approach.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs, a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases, is a growing global public health threat. The EU Commission is to develop comprehensive proposals by the end of 2012 for addressing the situation. This Paper is meant to provide input into those policy discussions.
The paper reviews AMR’s implications for the burden of disease, the causes of AMR, the current state of the antibiotic development pipeline and the reasons antibiotic R&D has been de-emphasised by biopharmaceutical companies.
Research spillovers may exist when research by one organisation creates increased output for other organisations that operate in the same or another sector of the economy. Both the mechanisms and the ultimate value of this transfer of ideas, knowledge or know-how still are not fully understood and virtually all such research on spillovers has been focused outside the UK. Given current constraints on public, charitable and private research funding, enhancing spillovers may become an important objective in UK science and technology policy.
This study compares pricing and reimbursement (P&R) policy for 43 orphan medicinal products (OMPs) across seven EU Member States: France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Examined in particular are the standards of evidence and the criteria for P&R decisions, the availability of access before full licensing approval, and requirements for studies after the drug is available on the market.
The debate continues as to whether public/charitable research replaces private research that otherwise would have occurred, or stimulates additional private research, or does neither. Given the extent of public and charitable biomedical research, the debate is particularly intense.
Health technology assessment (HTA) has become a critical basis for pricing and reimbursement decision-making worldwide. In some countries, extensive requirements for data are set out in guidances or regulation and apply to all new prescription medicines; in others, HTA is required of industry or performed by payers only for therapies expected to be particularly costly. Although the effect of HTA on spending for prescription medicines is studied often, far less attention is given to its effects on decisions about research and development in the biopharmaceutical industries.
Health Economics Research Group, Office of Health Economics and RAND Europe.
Understanding the nature, extent and processes involved in the return on investment in medical research has been largely neglected as an area of serious scientific study. This report is the outcome of a one-year study commissioned by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences, the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust. Its purpose is to compare the economic benefits accruing in the UK from medical research funded in the UK, publicly or by charities only, to the cost of that research.