Economics of Industry

Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Sussex, J. and Towse, A.

Monograph
December 2012

The cost of R&D for a successful new medicine has been an important policy issue at least since the 1960s. Cost estimates matter not just because of intellectual curiosity or for industry understanding of its performance, but because they are a key aspect of the international debate about the reasonableness of pharmaceutical prices and the magnitude of the long-term investments involved.

Towse, A., Garrison, L. and Puig-Peiro, R.

Occasional Paper
February 2012

Interest is growing in schemes that involve “paying for pills by results”, that is, “paying for performance” rather than merely “paying for pills”.  Despite its intuitive appeal, this approach is highly controversial and is disliked by many health care providers, policy makers, and pharmaceutical companies.

Sussex, J., Towse, A. and Devlin, N.

Research Paper
August 2011

Recent reforms to the National Health Service (NHS) in England include important changes in the regulation of prices for new medicines. From January 2014, the existing Pharmaceutical Pricing Regulation Scheme (PPRS) will be replaced by “value based pricing” (VBP) for branded medicines sold to the NHS. This will apply only to new medicines; those marketed before 2014 will continue to be governed by the PPRS.

Sharma, P. and Towse, A.

Monograph
April 2011

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs is a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases.  A growing global public health threat, AMR reduces the chances of successfully treating patients with infectious diseases, thereby increasing the probability of complications, morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that infectious diseases are the third leading cause of death in the European Union.

Towse, A. and Sharma, P.

Research Paper
April 2011

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is becoming a major global public health threat and has begun to command attention from European and US policy makers. An initial focus on monitoring AMR and conserving existing treatments by cutting down on misuse has been complemented by moves towards addressing the paucity of new drugs in the R&D pipeline of the pharmaceutical industry.

Mattison, N., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J. and Towse, A. eds.

Monograph
December 2010

This publication reports on a seminar intended to encourage further thought about the distinguishing characteristics of the market for biosimilars and the implications of these for potential savings.

Economists and regulatory experts from the US and Europe were invited to describe their research and offer their perspectives about what can be expected in the near- and medium-term.  The publication includes updated insights that take account of changes since the seminar, including more recent analyses of potential market impact.

Sharma, P. and Towse, A.

Occasional Paper
October 2010

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs, a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases, is a growing global public health threat. The EU Commission is to develop comprehensive proposals by the end of 2012 for addressing the situation. This Paper is meant to provide input into those policy discussions.

The paper reviews AMR’s implications for the burden of disease, the causes of AMR, the current state of the antibiotic development pipeline and the reasons antibiotic R&D has been de-emphasised by biopharmaceutical companies.

Chauhan, D., Towse, A. and Mestre-Ferrandiz, J.

Briefing
November 2008

The authors point out that biopharmaceuticals are more complex agents than conventional chemical entities and therefore are more difficult to replicate after  patent expiry. Off-patent versions of the originator product, moreover, cannot rely on a simple demonstration of chemical comparability; they are best described as ‘biosimilar’. These differences mean that biosimilar markets will evolve in a more complex way than traditional, small molecule, chemical generics markets.

Garau, M. and Sussex, J.

Briefing
February 2007

Knowing the net value that companies, or whole sectors of the economy, bring is clearly important when considering economic and industrial policy.

OHE Consulting

Consulting Report
February 2005

This report was updated and republished in 2012. Click here to be taken to that page.

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