Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs, a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases, is a growing global public health threat. The EU Commission is to develop comprehensive proposals by the end of 2012 for addressing the situation. This Paper is meant to provide input into those policy discussions.
The paper reviews AMR’s implications for the burden of disease, the causes of AMR, the current state of the antibiotic development pipeline and the reasons antibiotic R&D has been de-emphasised by biopharmaceutical companies.
For over a decade, the OHE website included a popular interactive e-source, The Economics of Health Care, focusing on the UK and aimed at post-16 students of economic courses. Because the details of how the NHS is organised have changed considerably, we have moved this material to the archive. We continue to make them available because the basic concepts of health economics and the types of issues the NHS faces have not changed.
The material in this book is drawn from presentations and discussions at the conference "New Financial Flows for NHS Hospitals – Introducing Payment by Results in England: Some Lessons from Overseas" held at The Commonwealth Club, London, on 31st March 2004.
The conference was jointly organised by the Office of Health Economics and the University of York Centre for Health Economics.
Prior to the 2002 Spending Review Derek Wanless was asked by the Chancellor of The Exchequer to assess the ‘financial and other resources required to ensure that the NHS can provide a publicly funded, comprehensive, high quality service on the basis of clinical need and not ability to pay.’ The resultant report on the future course of NHS spending was immensely important.
Looked at overall, dental care represents a fascinating mix of the public and private spheres. It has a strong component that many people argue can be left to individual responsibility, private funding and market processes. But it also has a strong public dimension. How these areas are delineated, and how they are both catered for within the overall dental sector, poses some complex challenges. Analysing the nature of these challenges and pointing to ways in which they can be met is the purpose of this report.
The past few decades have seen an accelerating increase in the numbers and proportion of older people in the populations of many countries.
Population ageing will have a profound impact on the societies, politics, and economies of countries. In particular, ageing is associated with alterations in private and public expenditure patterns, due to differing needs and preferences of older versus younger consumers.
Since the mid-1980s, the publication of hospital outcomes data has become increasingly popular. Canada and the US operate performance reporting systems, with similar initiatives planned in Australia and New Zealand (Mannion and Davies, 2002). In Europe, outcomes data are collected and published in the UK, Italy, Scandinavia and the Netherlands (Marshall and Brook, 2002).
Towse, A., Fenn, P., Gray, A., Rickman, N. and Salinas, R.
The UK government hopes that the proposals in the report of the Department of Health’s Chief Medical Officer "Making Amends" (CMO, 2003) will make its NHS safer whilst ensuring that patients who are harmed get compensation more quickly and more efficiently than at present. The Making Amends proposals seek to achieve this by setting up administrative mechanisms for compensating patients. These will provide an alternative to the existing court based "tort" system, whereby patients sue doctors and hospitals for negligence in order to get compensation. These changes should be helpful.
The purpose of the conference was to locate and promote the role of health economics in mental health policy in low and middle income countries. Health economists have a growing voice in health policy development. But just as it is only recently that mental health policy specifically has been highlighted on the global stage, with the WHO’s 2001 World Health Report, so too has the economics of mental health only comparatively recently started to claim attention on the global policy stage.
This monograph sets out the insights from applying an economic perspective to a fundamental problem for any health service: ensuring cost-effective care when outcomes from care are uncertain and there is imperfect information about the activities of providers and the factors outside their control which also affect outcomes. The focus is on primary care but the lessons carry over to other sectors.