OHE Publications

OHE releases a number of publications throughout the year, authored by OHE team members and/or outside experts. All are free for download as pdf files; hard copies of some publications are available upon request.

A description of the OHE publications categories.


 

Henderson, N., Firth, I., Errea, M., Skedgel, C. and Jofre-Bonet, M.

Consulting Report
September 2021

Medicines for rare and ultra-rare conditions face distinct economic and ethical challenges compared to medicines for more common conditions. These challenges are implicitly acknowledged by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) by providing an auxiliary appraisal route for highly specialized technologies. However, concerns have been raised regarding the appraisals of medicines that don’t meet the strict criteria and are, therefore, evaluated via the standard appraisal route (STA).

Berdud, M., Jofre-Bonet, M., Rodes-Sanchez, M., Towse, A. 

Consulting Report
May 2021

After the shock caused by the first wave of COVID-19, discovering vaccines against the virus and administering them quickly to the population became the utmost priority worldwide, especially once subsequent waves of COVID-19 were inevitable. Not only incentivising the research on vaccines and authorising them quickly, but managing optimally the portfolio of vaccine candidates and establishing an efficient distribution plan became paramount to the success of this instrument.

Cubi-Molla, P., Mott, D., Henderson, N., Zamora, B., Grobler, M. & Garau, M. 

Research Paper
February 2021

OHE explores the values of life that are used in analyses by the governmental departments of health, social care, environment, and transport, for a range of countries: Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, The Netherlands, and the UK. In most of the countries explored in this report, there is evidence that the criteria for resource allocation used by government or its agencies in the health sector values life significantly lower than the other non-health departments. The authors present a theoretical model which suggests that the existence of different values of life across departments is not inconsistent with the idea of optimal resource allocation (in a static model) but only if perfectly counterbalanced by non-health attributes. Notably, some form of reconciliation is needed to correct the potential imbalance in the value of the same attribute (life) across public sectors. Reconciliation could range from reallocation of budgets, transfers of benefit, to adjustments of benchmarking thresholds.

Brassel, S., Neri, M. and Steuten, L. 

Consulting Report
February 2021

The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the broad and devastating health, economic and societal impact of a highly infectious and deadly disease. In addition to the human suffering of COVID-19 patients, the pandemic is taking a heavy toll patients’ families, friends, colleagues, and other social networks. On healthcare staff working around the clock, wave after wave. And on the capacity of the NHS, buckling under the pandemic pressures with consequences that will last for years. Then, there’s the disastrous economic impact, crippling economies in the UK and worldwide.

Towse, A., Lothgren, M., Steuten, L. and Bruce, A. 

Consulting Report
February 2021

Using medicines in combination can deliver better outcomes for patients across different tumour types and disease stages. Yet many HTA agencies do not find that the expected additional benefits from adding a new medicine to a currently reimbursed medicine represents value for money to the health system. In markets that utilise cost-per-QALY approaches for assessing value, a clinically effective medicine might even be found to be “not cost-effective at zero price” when used as part of a regimen that increases treatment duration.

Pearson, S., Lowe, M., Towse, A., K., Segel, C. and Henshall, C.

Research Paper
September 2020

In the focus on US drug prices, ICER has contributed thinking on determining when price aligns with patient benefits. Less debated is whether insurance coverage provides patients with fair access to a drug with a fair, value-based, price. But how do we define fair access? This paper from ICER and OHE authors develops a fair access framework, proposing Ethical Goals for Access and Fair Design Criteria for cost sharing and prior authorization protocols.

Rodes Sanchez, M., Henderson, N. and Steuten, L. 

Consulting Report
August 2020

Histology independent therapies, a new class of medicines that target cancer based on specific genomic or molecular alterations of cancer cells rather than tissue of origin, face significant methodological and policy hurdles related to evidence development and acceptance, value assessment and reimbursement pathways, and diagnostic infrastructure availability.

Barros, P.

Seminar Briefing
August 2020

The issue of rising prescription drug prices is a concern in every country. Dozens of policy initiatives and hundreds of research projects over last the fifty years have attempted to find solutions to pricing that provide an appropriate balance between the cost to health care systems and incentives for R&D. To name but a few, these include reference pricing, managed entry agreements, price-volume agreements, rebates, and risk sharing. The ultimate solution, however, remains elusive.

 

Berdud. M., Ferraro. J., Towse. A.

Consulting Report
July 2020

This paper presents a supply and demand model of pharmaceutical markets to analyse the relationship between the value of the Cost-Effectiveness Threshold (CET) and the distribution of the health and economic value of new medicines between consumers (payers) and developers (life science industry). As a novelty, the model incorporates a bargaining process and bargaining power distributed between the payer and the developers, which has an impact on the distribution of the health and economic value of new medicines between the two parties.

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