OHE Publications

OHE releases a number of publications throughout the year, authored by OHE team members and/or outside experts. All are free for download as pdf files; hard copies of some publications are available upon request.

A description of the OHE publications categories.


Teeling Smith, G.

November 1981

There have been substantial increases in all categories of professional manpower in the National Health Service since it was first established in 1949. This Briefing examines and discusses the trends for doctors, nurses and midwives. The data it presents relate mainly to England, but similar trends apply to Great Britain as a whole. The discussion draws attention to the balance in professional manpower between hospitals and the domiciliary services.

May 1981

In Europe, as in other developed countries, health expenditures have recently been rising proportionately faster than national wealth. Between 1960 and 1978 the percentage of gross national product spent on health care in the European Community rose from about 4.1 per cent to 7.3 per cent.

December 1980

The annual number of NHS prescriptions dispensed by chemist and appliance contractors in the United Kingdom is falling after a seven year period of expansion. As Figure 1 shows, the overall total grew between 1972 and 1978 at an annual average rate of 3 per cent (approximately 9 million prescriptions). It peaked in 1978 at 378 million. This figure, which represented a net gain of 154 million prescriptions or 69 per cent over 1949, was the highest in NHS history.

December 1979

This OHE Briefing illustrates some of the difficulties inherent in making accurate international and international comparisons with regard to perinatal mortality, the most sensitive widely collected measure of fetal and maternal wellbeing. It also discusses some of the phenomena which cause, or are closely associated with, danger to life and/or health before and shortly after birth.

September 1979

In the richer nations of Europe and North America the gaining of control over the common infectious illnesses was a long, gradual process. It was initiated by improvements in the diet available to the mass of the people, coupled with public health measures like the provision of clean water supplies and adequate sanitation. Subsequently the attack was driven home by advances in both curative and preventive medicine. Amongst the most significant of these were the development of effective and safe immunising techniques.

Series on Health
February 1979

Over the past few years serious efforts have been made in Britain and elsewhere to achieve a more rational distribution of health care resources. It has often been assumed that an optimum supply of health care facilities could be achieved by the measurement of objective health care needs, and that, then, these resources could be fairly allocated to those requiring them. Unfortunately, well intentioned as these attempts have been, the reality is that the problem is much more complex.

October 1978

In 1978 the cost of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom will rise, to an estimated record level of £8,000 million. Even when adjusted for the falling value of the pound this means that the NHS costs three times as much as when it was first established. However, public spending in other sectors like education has risen to a similar degree and in the past decade the outlay in the NHS has remained constant at about 10 per cent of all public expenditure, less debt interest.

June 1978

In the financial year 1976-77 over £220 million was spent on health care research in the United Kingdom. Taking account of recent expenditure growth and making an allowance for less readily identifiable contributions it may be estimated that total health care research spending is currently approaching the £300 million mark. In real terms this is an almost twofold increase on the £80 million (£172 million at 1976 prices) recorded at the beginning of the decade.

September 1977

The information which pharmaceutical manufacturers provide for prescribing doctors – in the form of sales promotion and advertising – has been the subject of considerable and sometimes acrimonious controversy in Britain since the early 1960s. One result of this has been persistent political pressure to restrict both the content and volume of this information under the National Health Service. In response, the pharmaceutical manufacturers have accepted that in this respect they have to operate in a politically delicate environment.