OHE Publications

Series on Health
September 1974

During the past century the life expectancy at birth of the average Englishman has risen from 40 to around 70 years. Whereas it is likely that in 1870 only 60 per cent or less of children born alive in this country survived their first five years 98 per cent did so in 1970.

Taylor, D. ed.

July 1974

The physical health and longevity of the people of countries such as Britain has improved dramatically during the course of the past 100 years. In the middle and later decades of the 19th Century the average Englishman had at birth a life expectancy of around 40 years. Today it is nearly 70 years. In 1898 the pioneer social investigator Seebohm Rowntree recorded in a survey in York an infant mortality of 247 per 1,000 live births amongst the poorest class and one of 94 per 1,000 amongst the well-to-do.

Series on Health
June 1974

The United Kingdom's 25,000 family doctors, together with the nurses, midwives, health visitors, receptionists and others who make up the primary medical care team, deal with over 90 per cent of all illnesses which reach the formal structure of the health services. They also play a major role in generating the work of the specialist, hospital sector.

Series on Health
March 1974

Even at the start of the National Health Service's existence in 1948 it was realised by many of those employed in it that its tripartite division into hospital, local authority and executive council services, was to some extent unsatisfactory. Although the 1946 Act establishing the NHS represented a skilled and workable compromise between the interests and beliefs of the various groups involved in health care planning and delivery at that time, developments over the past 25 years have made a structural reorganisation increasingly necessary.

Series on Health
September 1973

Variations between people's personalities, skills and abilities are a usual and, in many respects, valuable aspect of life. But a few individuals' mental capacities in areas like simple calculation or the co-ordination of complex movements fall far short of average standards. Such people may as a result be in some ways disadvantaged as compared with their contemporaries and so considered to be mentally handicapped.

Series on Health
June 1973

The Oxford English Dictionary defìnes the skin as 'the continuous flexible integument forming the usual external covering of any animal body; also the layers of which this is composed'. It forms a barrier between the body and its environment. Its impermeable outer layer, the epidermis, keeps water and other external substances out while conversely it controls loss of water, electrolytes and other substances from within the body.

Series on Health
March 1973

During the past Century the general improvement in living standards and the development of modem medicine have eliminated infectious disease as a major cause of mortality in Britain. The life expectancies of the average man and woman have been considerably extended so that the great majority of people now survive to become liable to the chronic conditions associated with advancing age.

Series on Health
November 1972

During the course of the past hundred years countries such as Britain have seen a very marked change in their patterns of morbidity and mortality. For example, between 1848 and 1872 it has been estimated that over 32 per cent of all male deaths in England and Wales were caused by infectious diseases and that only 6 per cent were the result of cancer and diseases of the circulatory system. By 1970 the respective figures were 0.6 per cent and 56.6 per cent.

Series on Health
October 1972

The control of the major health problems of the early part of the twentieth century represents a triumph for medical progress in the past twenty-five years. Developments in pharmacology and in medical technology, and their widespread availability free or at nominal cost to the patient under the National Health Service, have transformed the pattern of sickness and mortality in Great Britain.

Series on Health
September 1972

Out of £868 minion spent on the revenue account of the hospital service in England and Wales in 1970, £242 million, or a little over one quarter, was spent on supplies of goods and equipment. Table 1 shows the breakdown of spending by the nine broad categories which have been used for accounting under the National Health Service. These are the only comprehensive data available at the national level, though they are unable to reflect the diversity of medical and non-medical goods purchased, from boiler fuel to pharmaceuticals and from food to surgical instruments.