Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the temporary cessation of breathing during sleep because of a narrowing or closure of the pharyngeal airway. Untreated OSA can result in daytime sleepiness that affects cognitive function, mood and quality of life and can increase the risks of road traffic, work-related accidents and cardiovascular disease and strokes.
The EQ-5D is one of the most used health-related quality of life instruments worldwide. Understanding the characteristics of its underlying data is essential. In this paper, OHE’s Nancy Devlin and Yan Feng join David Parkin from King’s College London in analyzing characteristics of the EQ-5D indexing process that may obscure useful, and important, information about health states.
Shah, K., Sussex, J., Hernandez-Villafuerte, K. and Garau, M., Rotolo, D., Hopkins, M.M., Grassano, N., Crane, P., Lang, F., Hutton, J., Pateman, C., Mawer, A., Farrell, C. and Sharp, T.
As earlier OHE research has demonstrated, sources of funding for medical research—public, charity and private sector—are complementary, not duplicative. The three sectors also differ in their approaches. As a result, decreased funding from one would not only reduce the overall financing available, but also change the nature of the research effort overall. This is a concern given that austerity in government spending in the UK is likely to continue for some time. This report produced by OHE and SPRU at the University of Sussex for Cancer Research UK explores two sets of questions: 1.
Lewis, F., Karlsberg Schaffer, S., Sussex, J., O'Neill, P. and Cockcroft, L.
Alzheimer’s Research UK commissioned OHE Consulting to model the incidence and cost of dementia in the UK and the potential impact of better treatment. The analyses estimate the extent of the substantial reductions in health and social care costs that are possible to 2050.
Karlsberg Schaffer, S., Sussex, J., Hughes, D. and Devlin, N.
This new research from the OHE examines how Local Health Boards (LHBs) in Wales adjust spending to meet the statutory requirement of providing access to technologies recommended by NICE within three months after NICE publishes a Technology Appraisal (TA). Based on interviews with medical and/or finance directors of the seven Wales LHBs, the study covers the period from October 2010 through March 2013.
Rejon-Parrilla, J.C., Hernandez-Villafuerte, K., Shah, K., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Garrison, L. and Towse, A.
This report examines the importance and history of HTA evaluations for additional uses for cancer drugs after their initial approval. Included are the ten cancer drugs approved by the EMA during 2003–2005. Decisions by France’s HAS, NICE and Aetna in the US are analysed.
Based on an OHE Lunchtime Seminar, this publication addresses a persistent issue: how to adequately reward innovation through the pricing of new medicines given the limitations of the information available at launch. As the author points out, oncology drugs in particular often follow the path of incremental innovation, proceeding in steps towards realising their full potential in treatment -- and even cure.
Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Deverka, P., Pistollato, M. and Rosenberg, E.
The project reported in this Occasional Paper was intended to determine how changing demands for evidence are affecting drug development in five global pharmaceutical companies: Amgen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis. A literature review helped elucidate concepts and define focus. The authors then conducted semi-structured interviews with an international sample of 19 senior pharmaceutical executives in various positions in the five companies: R&D, outcomes research, medical affairs, and pricing and reimbursement.
This Briefing summarises the results of a roundtable convened by OHE to discuss using HTA to assess biosimilars – including which methods are most appropriate in specific situations. Participating were ten experts: leading academics and representatives from the UK medicines regulatory agency, the three UK HTA entities, and the UK industry trade association. Background for discussion at the meeting included an OHE literature review and ABPI’s 2013 position paper on biosimilar medicines.
Cost-effectiveness analysis plays a limited role in US health care compared to many other countries. In this Seminar Briefing, Dr James Chambers, Center for the Evaluation of Value and Risk in Health at Tufts Medical Center, considers the current use of cost-effectiveness analysis in the US and explores the potential value of including it in decisions about coverage for medical technology by Medicare (the national public health insurance programme primarily for people 65+ years of age).