Hernandez-Villafuerte, K., Li, R., Towse, A. and Chalkidou, K.
This mapping of priority-setting considers factors such as existence of HTA institutions and commitment to UHC (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Uruguay, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam).
This OHE Occasional Paper by Adrian Towse discusses Professor Bengt Jönsson’s observations in a 2011 publication about the role of relative effectiveness research (RE) in the European medicines market and how this could lead to improved efficiency in the development of medicines, the pricing and use of medicines, and of health systems.
Mestre-Ferrandiz, J., Deverka, P., Pistollato, M. and Rosenberg, E.
The project reported in this Occasional Paper was intended to determine how changing demands for evidence are affecting drug development in five global pharmaceutical companies: Amgen, Eli Lilly, GSK, Novartis and Sanofi-Aventis. A literature review helped elucidate concepts and define focus. The authors then conducted semi-structured interviews with an international sample of 19 senior pharmaceutical executives in various positions in the five companies: R&D, outcomes research, medical affairs, and pricing and reimbursement.
Interest is growing in schemes that involve “paying for pills by results”, that is, “paying for performance” rather than merely “paying for pills”. Despite its intuitive appeal, this approach is highly controversial and is disliked by many health care providers, policy makers, and pharmaceutical companies.
Prepared as background for the OHE Commission on Competition, this paper provides an overview of the published literature detailing the links between quality and competition in health care systems. It finds that most empirical research to date has focused on aspects of competition and quality in the hospital sector, rather than GP/outpatient care.
This paper examines the potentially positive impact of differential pricing in Europe and the overall negative effects of international reference pricing (IRP) measures. The authors point out that IRP actually encourages higher prices in lower-income countries, can delay marketing/patient access in lower-price countries, and ultimately translates into less investment in R&D. Differential pricing assumes that countries with lower incomes should pay lower prices, encourages the earliest possible marketing in all countries, and provides incentives for innovation.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs, a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases, is a growing global public health threat. The EU Commission is to develop comprehensive proposals by the end of 2012 for addressing the situation. This Paper is meant to provide input into those policy discussions.
The paper reviews AMR’s implications for the burden of disease, the causes of AMR, the current state of the antibiotic development pipeline and the reasons antibiotic R&D has been de-emphasised by biopharmaceutical companies.
Research spillovers may exist when research by one organisation creates increased output for other organisations that operate in the same or another sector of the economy. Both the mechanisms and the ultimate value of this transfer of ideas, knowledge or know-how still are not fully understood and virtually all such research on spillovers has been focused outside the UK. Given current constraints on public, charitable and private research funding, enhancing spillovers may become an important objective in UK science and technology policy.
This is the second in an occasional series of Pharmaceutical Industry Papers to be published by OHE. The first concerned prices; this second paper is concerned, by contrast, with the costs of pharmaceutical innovation.
This study by Keith Hartley and Alan Maynard is based on a survey which they conducted amongst major pharmaceutical companies in Britain during 1980. It clearly identifies costs arising from the 1968 Medicines Act, in terms of money, manpower and delays.