In this monograph based his remarks at the 19th OHE Annual Lecture, Professor Sir Michael Rawlins examines the standards of proof required to show the effectiveness of a medical therapy. He traces the historical development of inductive and deductive approaches in science, discussing the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Sir Michael expresses concern that some view randomised controlled trials (RCTs) as the “gold standard” of evidence. RCTs, he argues, are very important, but other approaches to evidence development can prove equally valid in some circumstances.
The cost of R&D for a successful new medicine has been an important policy issue at least since the 1960s. Cost estimates matter not just because of intellectual curiosity or for industry understanding of its performance, but because they are a key aspect of the international debate about the reasonableness of pharmaceutical prices and the magnitude of the long-term investments involved.
The Humble Economist is an outstanding collection of the most important essays by Prof Tony Culyer, a founding father of health economics. It distils a powerful set of ideas that have profoundly influenced health policy and decision making, and shows how reason and evidence can be used to improve decision making in any area of social policy.
This report is based on the deliberations of the OHE Commission on Competition that was assembled in early 2011 "to consider the circumstances where competition between providers of health care might be both feasible and expected to yield benefits, and where not."
The members of the Commission possessed experience and expertise in competition/regulation economics, NHS economics, health policy, NHS management, and health care provision. Their views on competition in the NHS were divergent, meaning that the conclusions the Commission would reach were far from predetermined.
In this new report, Prof Paul Dolan provides an accessible guide into the latest developments in happiness research as they apply to the valuation of health. This report considers the degree to which happiness data can overcome some of the well-known problems with existing preference-based ways of valuing health. It presents new valuation data that show how the dimensions of health that matter most in happiness regressions are not the same as those that matter most when people are asked about their preferences. In particular, mental health matters more in happiness reports
Please note: an updated version of this publication is available here.
This publication provides both up-to-date statistics and a guide to finding and using health statistics from the UK and, to some extent, other OECD countries. Data are presented in easy to read tables and figures.
The OHE Guide helps answer the following questions.
The speaker for the OHE's 16th Annual Lecture was Sir Mike Richards, National Clinical Director for Cancer and End of Life Care in England's Department of Health.
In his presentation, Prof Richards addressed five questions about the NHS achieving world class outcomes in cancer: (1) What would ‘world class’ look like (2) What measures are appropriate? (3) Where are we now? (4) Why are England's outcomes below the best? and (5) What do we need to do to close the gap?
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) to drugs is a natural and unavoidable consequence of treating infectious diseases. A growing global public health threat, AMR reduces the chances of successfully treating patients with infectious diseases, thereby increasing the probability of complications, morbidity and mortality. The World Health Organization estimates that infectious diseases are the third leading cause of death in the European Union.
What a health care system should pay for depends, of course, on the health gain that results. Health technology assessment (HTA) and cost-effectiveness analysis have become the core for many such decisions, by NICE in the UK and by similar bodies elsewhere. Other factors, however, also are taken into account by the governments and insurers who fund health care. These typically include: the impact of decisions on social equity; the quality of the patient experience; ramifications for the wider economy; and the quality of evidence required for decision
Mattison, N., Mestre-Ferrandiz, J. and Towse, A. eds.
This publication reports on a seminar intended to encourage further thought about the distinguishing characteristics of the market for biosimilars and the implications of these for potential savings.
Economists and regulatory experts from the US and Europe were invited to describe their research and offer their perspectives about what can be expected in the near- and medium-term. The publication includes updated insights that take account of changes since the seminar, including more recent analyses of potential market impact.