Transparency as a principle of good governance is not the same as transparency for improving access by lowering prices. In fact, the former often carries an opportunity cost on the latter. Developing country markets are, however, dominated by generic products and encouraging competition through sharing prices makes sense if capacities are there to use the data to inform procurement decisions and protect against collusion.

‘Cascades of care’ have emerged as an attractive tool for assessing access to care for numerous chronic diseases. Dr Haacker will examine the use of cascades of care across diseases and populations, evaluate the use of cross-sectional targets in disease control strategies (e.g., the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets), and address implications for cost-effectiveness analysis.

Value-based pricing (VBP) is an efficient method for pricing new drugs. Rate of return pricing could, however, be useful in two cases: treatments for ultra-rare diseases, and ‘cures’ for conditions currently being treated at great expense. Rate of return pricing gives rise to challenges. Two are (i) finding proxy estimates of development costs including failures, and (ii) driving future research towards discovering high-value treatments.